A tooth extraction is the removal of the tooth from its socket in the bone, from the crown to the roots; even if dentists usually make everything to avoid the extraction of a tooth, this one can be necessary if the tooth is too badly damaged and can’t be restored in any way.
Tooth removal. Types of extractions.
There are two types of extractions: the first one is a simple extraction, that is performed when the tooth is visible in the mouth and not difficult to reach; this simple extraction can be done by the general dentist and requires a local anaesthesia to numb the tissues around the tooth.
During the simple extraction, the dentist loosens and lift the tooth with an instrument called an elevator. Then the dentist uses an instrument called a forceps to break the periodontal ligament and remove the tooth.
The second type of extraction is the surgical extraction, that is performed when the tooth is in a not easily accessed position because it is under the gum line or it has not erupted fully; in this case, the dentist or the oral surgeon has to cut the gum. A surgical extraction is usually made under a general anaesthetic.
The dentist or the oral surgeon may elevate the soft tissues covering the tooth and sometimes it is necessary to remove the bone or the surrounding jawbone tissue and frequently, the tooth is cut in a half or into multiple pieces to facilitate its removal.
After the tooth is removed, the doctor might apply stitches; the missing tooth can be replaced with an implant, a denture, or a bridge. During the same extraction procedure, one or more teeth can be removed.
Teeth removal. The various situations.
A tooth extraction can be necessary for many reasons, the most common are a crowded mouth, when teeth are too big for the mouth and it is not possible to create another space among them; this condition can also impede a tooth to erupt properly.
A severe tooth decay can lead to a tooth extraction because there can be the risk for the infection to spread to surrounding tissues; the extraction is usually performed after other treatments, such as root canal therapy or antibiotics, have failed.
At the same time, even a periodontal disease can cause a tooth extraction.
Tooth extraction. Precautions.
A tooth extraction is a safe procedure, but there are some precautions to be taken before and after the surgery. Especially patients with heart problems or who are undergoing specific cares, have to report their condition to the dentist.